Are you seeking drafting and architecture training? If so, you must understand that in order to become a legal, practicing architect in the United States, you are required to follow a specific educational path, and be licensed.

To attain a professional license, future architects must first attain professional drafting and architecture training from a qualified school. Upon successful graduation, candidates are required to participate in an internship to continue their drafting and architecture training. After that, the student may go on to taking the Architect Registration Examination (ARE) and must receive passing scores on all divisions.

If you are wondering what drafting and architecture training really consists of, the coursework will generally include related subjects such as architectural history, theory, building design, construction techniques, liberal arts, math, physical sciences, professional practice, arts and design, and computer aided drafting (CAD).

If you are serious about a career in drafting and architecture, then a vocational school or community college is a good place to gain your footing. Most employers are seeking experienced and well-educated candidates, so it is important to obtain a solid background in academics and technologies suited for the dual career. Drafting and architecture training that can be transferred to a 4-year college can be used as a stepping stone to a Bachelor Degree in Architecture and Drafting. Some vocational schools offer comprehensive technical training that will lead to a certificate or diploma of completion; others may offer an Associate Degree.

Aspiring professionals who have completed their vocational drafting and architecture training, and have successfully met all requirements of licensure, may earn anywhere from $25,000 to nearly $100,000 per year, depending on combined education and experience.

If you would like to learn more about Drafting and Architecture Training and Drafting and Architecture Schools, or even Online Drafting and Architecture Schools, you can find more in-depth information and resources on our website.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERAL OVERVIEW and may or may not reflect specific practices, courses and/or services associated with ANY ONE particular school(s) that is or is not advertised on our website.

Copyright 2007 – All rights reserved by Media Positive Communications, Inc.

Notice: Publishers are free to use this article on an ezine or website, provided the article is reprinted in its entirety, including copyright and disclaimer, and ALL links remain intact and active.

As you start planting vegetable gardens it’s important to know how the garden will be laid out. The layout of your own garden will depend on what vegetable you want to grow, the planting space and if you would like to opt for companion planting. Here are some helpful tips on how to layout your own garden and start planting vegetables.

Sit Down and Plan

Before choosing a layout you need to decide on what type of vegetable you would like to grow and where you would like to plant them. Here are other factors you need to consider for your garden layout:

– Garden Space – Amount of Light in the Space – Drainage System – Soil Amendments – Type of Vegetable – Additional Space (if needed)

You should also think about whether you want to grow one type of vegetable like lettuce and tomatoes or if you want one type of vegetable with different kinds. Researching about the amount of light a certain vegetable needs and the amount of space that each need to be planted are both helpful facts to find out.

Make a list of vegetables you want to plant and find out the plant requirements of each and compare it with the garden space you have. This should give you an idea of where you want to plant certain vegetables in your space.

Choose your Garden Layout

There are three basic vegetable garden layouts and they are: rows, beds and “potager” style.

The most popular rows style of layout requires planting seeds in a row which could either mean planting one type of seed in a row or different seeds in a row.

The bed type of layout is similar the rows style but in a smaller level. This layout allows access to the plant beds from the exterior of the garden or as you walk through the garden path instead of coming from inside of the plant bed. This is particularly convenient to avoid stepping on the beds which tends to pack in the soil and makes it difficult to dig and aerate in the spring or fall. Plant beds are great ways to maximize a garden space and you can even use raised beds for easy gardening.

The most decorative style of layout is the “potager” which means kitchen garden in French. This layout is described as geometric which allows you to layout your garden in circles or arrange plants by color or even food type.

Consider Companion Planting

The idea behind companion planting involves planting different kinds of plants together so that they help each other grow. A perfect example of this is planting beans, corn and squash together which were commonly done by Native Americans. While the corn gives the beans a place to climb, the beans gives its three companions nutrients in the soil and the squash serves as a shade to the roots of the plants beside it. This not only prevents weeds from growing, it also saves up on water.

Other great plants for companion planting are onions, which scares slugs and aphids away, tomatoes, which grow well with carrots and basil, which improves the taste of tomatoes. Another example is horseradish and potatoes which when planted together give your potatoes protection from disease.

In planting vegetable gardens, this concept is certainly worth considering and if you want to get more information about it, you can do some research online or in your local library.

If you are a hobby gardener, you may be dreaming about fresh organic vegetables. It is easier than it seems with a few simple steps. I discovered that vegetable gardening requires good planning and proper preparation for a successful harvest.

Step 1 – Bed and border planning: Whether squash, tomatoes or lettuce, healthy plants have needs. Since most vegetables need a sheltered and sunny spot, growing them in the shade will be a futile effort. The size of the vegetable garden patch depends on the total size of the garden, and what vegetables you want to grow. Radishes or carrots grow well in a confined space. Significantly more space is required for potatoes, squash and cabbage. Draw a scaled plan of the bed and lay out which plants grow where. The single bed should be no wider than 130 inches to keep the center of the bed from both sides within easy reach. Enclosing the bed creates visual clarity and prevents rain from washing away the fertile topsoil. This can be done using weather resistant wood planks of larch, oak, frost-resistant bricks or natural stones. If you typically have a lot of snails in the garden, you may want to consider a special snail guard.

Step2 – Preparing the soil: Before it goes to seeding or planting, you need to prepare the ground. Use a garden claw to loosen up soil or mix existing dirt with nutritious top soil. You can spread a few bags of flower and vegetable topsoil on the bed. This will provide proper nutrition and good plant growth. In order to improve the nutrient content of the soil, you can also incorporate fertilizer. When in doubt conduct a pH test of the soil to avoid over-fertilizing. You can get pH test strips or a soil tester at your local garden center.

Step 3 – Make sure you have good neighbors: Not all vegetables get along. For example, onions should not be planted next to green beans or cabbage. Tomatoes will grow well next to cabbage, lettuce, spinach, parsley, and celery. You can buy seeds or small plants to start your own vegetable garden. Established plants are sometimes easier for gardening newcomers. Sow or plant the vegetables in rows spaced wide enough apart to facilitate later maintenance of the bed. Keep in mind that some vegetables like green beans or tomatoes require a trellis.

Step 4 – Cultivate and harvest: If you plant early in the spring and the weather is still cool, cover the freshly planted and sown vegetables to protect them from frost damage. Otherwise, a vegetable is very easy to maintain. If there is no rain, just water once daily and remove the weeds in between. With a little patience and depending on your region, your own fresh vegetables can be harvested in mid to late summer. When the season is over and you want to use your vegetable patch in the next year again, it is important to give the new soil nutrients. For example, old humus from the compost is ideal for mixing the existing soil.

For more helpful tips and guides on vegetable gardening visit the Gardening Palace at:

Garden lighting is a very important and vital part of landscaping. All around the world, the lighting is used to create an amazing look of the gardens irrespective of the fact that they are privately owned or public ones. The garden lighting has been in use for centuries either for the purpose of security or beautification. The power source has changed over the years with advancement in their shapes and sizes as well as colors. They are also used for decoration and lighting in an outdoor function, and you will all agree with me that they look awesome.

If you are planning to do landscaping of your garden, you must not forget the garden lighting, as your garden will not look as beautiful as it should. There are many different types of these appliances available depending upon their shapes and sizes. They are used for different purposes, and creating different looks in the garden. The main types in which the backyard lighting can be categorized are landscape lights, spotlights, security lights, and step lights. You will find a great variety under all these four categories. The landscape garden illumination can be put to various uses in the design of your garden according to its theme. They are available in different shapes. Some are in the shapes of flowers, animals, and bugs. They look very pretty when placed among the plants strategically. There are also garden stake lights that can be placed in the flowerbeds, or in the corners where they deem fit.

The spot garden illumination are used for throwing light at a specific point in the garden. They look pretty amazing in the garden. They are also available in different shapes such as rocks, so they also look like a part of the garden. The security lights are basically meant for providing enough light in the garden for people to see properly, and show them the path. The garden lighting is also available in different designs such as hanging lamps etc. You have a lot of variety in these lights as well so that you can select the ones that compliment the rest of the garden, and do not look out of place. Last but not the least are the deck and step Garden Lighting. As the name indicates, they are meant to be placed on the deck or patio steps, so that they are properly visible.

If youre like most of us you love to watch those home improvement shows on TV, they make it look so easy to change the appearance of your home by doing some simple home improvements. And if youre like most of us and have to work Monday thru Friday any home improvement projects have to be done on the weekend. So for all you weekend warriors here are my top 5 weekend projects:

Bathroom or Kitchen facelift- Im not talking about a major remodel here just a simple facelift can totally change the look of a kitchen or bathroom. Refinishing the kitchen cabinets, new paint and wallpaper, replacing a toilet, or maybe even replacing that old bathroom or kitchen facet can greatly improve and update the look of any home.

Install new lighting- Installing new lighting can not only brighten your home but give a room a totally different look. Whether installing a light kit on a ceiling fan or replacing that old outdated fluorescent light in the kitchen with some of the new kitchen lighting on the market, installing new lighting is a weekend project thats relatively easy and comes with a big return.

Install tile- whether a kitchen floor or backsplash or new tile in the bathroom, installing ceramic tile is easier than you think and is a great weekend project for weekend warriors. Most home improvement stores have everything you need for professional looking results, one tip: Be sure to rent a tile saw, it will save you a lot of time and is well worth the cost.

Changing the color of a room- Color is in! You will be surprised how a splash of color can totally change the look of any room. Many homes have either white or off-white walls but many homeowners have found adding color to a room can brighten and warm up a room and is a great weekend home improvement project for anyone. As with any painting project the time you spend in preparing before actually painting will speak volumes as to the results.

Staining Garage Floor or Patio- This is a great project for weekend warriors. Perhaps you have a garage with oil spots, old paint, and other unidentifiable stains on the floor. Staining your garage floor can bring new life to any garage and look great! Some of the new epoxy products on the market offer numerous color choices and colored flakes that you wont find in most home improvement superstores and will give your garage a unique and customized look.

Being a weekend warrior when it comes to home improvement projects can be fun and rewarding. Be sure to do your research about the best products and techniques before starting any home improvement project, but dont be scared to try something you have never done before. There is an abundance of information and how-to books on just about any project you decide to tackle, so go ahead and conquer that weekend project.

Plants Do Not Grow in the Dark

You can have house plants in the dark, but you cannot just leave them there, they will die. This is because plants do not grow in the dark, sunlight is necessary for plant growth, even if it is reflected light.

Keeping house plants in the dark will only weaken them and they will become soft. Just because a plant is called an indoor plant, does not mean that it is going to survive in all places in the home. There are many indoor plants that actually require quite a lot of light, too.

To define low-light, if you can still cast a shadow, or still read a book by the available natural light, then it is low-light. Anything with less light is, well, dark. If it is necessary to use artificial light to enter a room, then it is too dark to grow plants in.

Some of the areas defined as low light, might be the far end of the hallway, some downstairs room, bathroom, etc. Apartments are often lacking window space, or may have little windows.

If you are determined that you simply must have living plants in the really dark areas of your home, there is a way, but it requires effort. This idea requires that you set up a system of rotation with your house plants.

Rotating Your House Plants in the Dark.
This will only work if you already have house plants growing in more favorably lit areas.

Before we start, you can Only leave indoor plants in darkened areas for a few days, three to five – at the most. You replace this plant with one of your other houseplants, that is currently getting the most light.

Move all your other plants one spot closer to the brightest area. The plant you took from the dark area, is placed in the least lighted area. If all plants get the same amount of light, all good and well, just swap out one plant at a time – light for dark.

If you take the plant from the dark and stick it straight outside in the sun, the leaves are going to burn and, the shock will probably kill it. You must introduce it to the sunlight again, gradually.

Along the same lines, If the plant has not regained its full health by the time you have run out of other plants to replace it with – get some more. If you put an already weakened plant back into some dark recess, it will only continue to weaken.

This is a fair amount of effort just to have some plant down the end of the hall. Therefore, it may pay to first assess just why you want it there in the first place. Does that area get a lot of passing traffic? Could be simpler to merely buy any of the life-like silk-plants commonly available.

Best Low Light House Plants.
The following plants are famous for their low light tolerance. They are also excellent for novice indoor gardeners. The fact that they are very difficult to kill, being the primary reason.

Sanseviera.
Also known as Mother-In-Laws Tongue or, Snake Plant. This plant can withstand anything from very low light indoors, to being discarded in the middle of a paddock. Very, very, hardy. Do not plant in the garden – too hard to kill.

Japanese Hollyfern – Phanerophlebia falcata.
If you live in an apartment, this is the plant you want. It will thrive with low light, low humidity, a hot dry atmosphere and drafts. The name comes from the fronds, looking a bit like Christmas holly. Reaching to 60 cm indoors.

Zanzibar Gem – Zamioculcas zamiifolia
These glossy, fern-like leaves resemble a cycad. Quite tolerant of extended dry periods and, low light conditions. Indestructibility rating – high.

Aglonema.
Also know as Chinese Evergreen. These plants really prefer moderate light but will adapt well to low light. They have large dark green spear-shaped leaves, that are heavily marbled with white, cream or silver and white. An easy-care plant. Avoid placing in direct sunlight.

The Dracaena Family.
These plants are mostly long-stemmed, tending to leggy if left unattended, with rosettes of strap-like foliage. Thrives on neglect.

Dracaena Marginata.
Also know as Dragon Tree. Its bonsai-like trunk branches with age and can grow up to ten feet high. The basic species has narrowed, arching leaves, which are edged with red.

Dracaena fragrans Massangeana.
Also know as Corn Plant, Happy, or Fortune Plant. These have long wide leaves that arc gracefully from the stalk. Usually white variegated. Can be grown merely sitting in a bowl of stones, for stability. A fair indication of their tolerance to most conditions.

Parlor Palm – Neanthe Bella.
Used extensively in the Victorian era, this was a most popular plant to have in one’s parlor. Leaves are a stiff spike at first, to open as a handsome fan. Primarily a low light specimen, this fellow is very hardy.

Kentia Palm – Howea forsteriana
Another popular and decorative palm. With a slender trunk and dark-green, elegant, drooping, fan-like fronds. Will put up with dark to bright areas and dry atmosphere.

The Cast Iron Plant – Aspidistra.
Long, deep green, ribbed leaves, also variegated varieties. Couldn’t be more aptly named, this is one of the toughest and most adaptable of house plants. For all intents and purposes, this plant is indestructible.

Climbing Asparagus Fern.
Evergreen long-lived, perennial, understory plants. Emerging from an underground crown, the canes have backward-facing spikes to assist with climbing. Largish, branched fronds, covered in tiny little whisker-like leaves. These plants will tolerate practically any condition, including drought and saline soils. Massive root-system. Due to their indestructible nature, they have been declared a noxious species in many places.

With all indoor plants, in order for them to survive, conditions similar to their natural environment need to be reconstructed – within reason. As far as natural environments go, you will find that plants do not grow in the dark. Why then are people surprised at their failure when trying to grow their house plants in the dark.

According to ancient Chinese myth there lay, some where far, far east of the Chinese coast, five islands populated by men and women who had attained im mortality and who lived together in perfect harmony. Legend relates that they flew around the lofty peaks of the islands on the backs of cranes. The islands them selves were carried on the backs of giant sea turtles. Two of the islands were subsequently lost, however, following a battle with a sea monster.

The power which this myth exerted for hundreds of years over the imaginations of the Chinese and, later, Japanese is reflected in the expeditions mounted by the Chinese emperors to find the islands and snatch the elixir of youth from their immortal inhabitants. Around the turn of the first century BC, all such at tempts having failed, Emperor Wu decided to lure the immortals to his own palace by building a garden which resembled as closely as possible the mythical isles themselves. Thus he created a large lake contain ing four islands, all with palaces. On the shores of the lake he constructed a platform, two hundred feet high, from which to communicate with the immortals.”

The myth of the Isles of the Blest must have reached Japan even before the introduction of Buddhism, since it is the subject of a reference in the Nihon shoki, the Chronicles of Japan from around 720 AD. An entry for the year 478 mentions the son of one Urashima, toge ther with his beloved (who had emerged from a turtle), as having actually reached the Isles of the Blest and visited the immortals.”

As history shows, Japan was as captivated by this myth as by the myth of the mountain at the centre of the universe. It became a characteristic feature of Japanese gardens up until the end of the Era era. It must be said, however, that Japan condensed the five islands of the original Chinese myth into just one, the island of P’eng-lai, or Horai-zan in Japanese, which was symbolized in Japanese garden architecture as a Horai mountain, Horai island or Horai rock, and at times even as a crane or turtle island. Cranes and tur tles thereby became symbols of longevity in their own right; even today, Japanese celebrations such as weddings and anniversaries will always feature Ihe symbol of a turtle or a crane in some form, whether in a paint ing, flower arrangement or simply ongami shapes.

The similarities between the central archetypes of the myths described above inevitably led to their con fusion even before they had left China for Japan. The mountain at the centre of Ihe universe in the Hmdu-Buddhisi myth forms the backdrop to the drama of the quest for Nirvana, the state of eternal peace. The isles of the Blest at the heart of the Taoist myth become the stage setting for the attainment of eternal life Despite the parallels between their spatial metaphors, however, their paths to salvation are different: the first follows the path of meditation, the second Ihe path of magic.

Nowadays, there is a growing trend in the design and engineering industries that does not only help to achieve an enhanced knowledge and ideas about design and building techniques and strategies, but also contributes a great impression about the stability of the country or business corporations. Ensuring that designs and building plans are accurate is just one of the many important things that are necessary in order for construction engineers, architects, and investors to understand the cover materials, techniques and expenses needed in the completion of a building project.

Language translations are required for all sorts of construction documents, such as drawings, building plans and any other important construction documents that are needed to be understood by everybody who is involved in the building project.

Although today people with different languages can communicate using the universal language English, it is still possible that people may not understand and may confuse each other. In some cases like in the architecture and engineering industries today, most often building developers seek skillful architects offshore, just to ensure the international quality of the plans and techniques.

Entering the international arena means dealing with different languages and culture, and thus it is necessary that language barriers should be broken down by using professional translation and interpreting services.

Project or construction documents should be translated into the mother tongue of the architect and the same for the language of the building developer. In doing so, hiring professional translators with specialized skills and knowledge in the architecture and engineering industries are the most suitable linguists, who can effectively help understand and avoid issues that may later create serious problem for the entire building project.

The required help for professional language translation services for all participants in the construction business can surely be found with linguists that have track records of performing technical translation and that are knowledgeable about the engineering industry. However, choosing the right translator for your document may not be always easy; but referring directly to a professional and reputable translation company can definitely give clients solutions to their worrying problems.

Language is considered as a significant barrier between nationalities and cultures. Most people may not know a common language to use for communication, but through the process of translation and interpreting services all these problems in communication and understanding are taken care of and well avoided.

Translation services have plenty of purposes in different industries, such as in marketing, financial, education, medicine, and the engineering industry.

J2ME or also know as Java ME is a platform that is specifically designed for application development to run on mobile phones, PDAs and other embedded systems. J2ME development features an adaptable user interface, which integrates with network protocols and extends support for mobile application development. The mobile applications that are developed on J2ME can be also migrated across various different mobile devices. J2ME application developers create a variety of different mobile applications based on the customized requirements of the clients. They are experience in creating diverse mobile solutions and hence most clients prefer to outsource their mobile business applications to India.

J2ME Architecture and configuration
J2ME comprises of configurations and profiles that allow a developer to customize it for the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). The configuration defines the JVM used and the profile adds domain-specific classes to define the application.

Configurations: The configuration uses a set of core classes and a specific JVM to define the basic run-time environment. The configurations are of two types where one is called CLDC for handheld devices and the second one is CDC for plug-in devices. CLDC is has been developed for 16-bit or 32-bit small computing devices that have limited memory. CDC requires a 32-bit architecture and has at least 2 MB of memory and implements a functional JVM.

Profiles: A profile comprises of classes that allow J2ME application developers to execute features that are typically available on a group of small computing devices. The profiles used with CLDC are mobile information device profile (MIDP) and PDA profile (PDAP). The profiles used with CDC include Foundation Profile, Game Profile, Personal Profile, Personal Basis Profile and RMI Profile.

J2ME Architecture
The J2ME architecture consists of five layers and they are as follows:

MIDP: This is the topmost layer and consists of Java APIs. J2ME application developers use these APIs to create network connections, storage, and user interface. It also provides access to CLDC libraries and MIDP libraries.
J2ME APIs: This is the profile that comprises of a minimum set of application programming interfaces required for the small computing devices.
Configurations: This is responsible to manage the interactions between the JVM and the profile.
JVM
Operating System: This is the bottom layer.

Chennai architecture depends upon the architect, the clients requirement, the latest architectural trends and the materials available to Chennais building industry. The latest architectural trends play the major role, and these trends are to an extent influenced by local developments in information technology, communication and transport facilities.

Chennais latest architectural trends are:
1. Self-sustaining townships in suburban areas
2. Green buildings
3. Large retail outlets
4. Sizeable landscaped areas

After land costs skyrocketed in urban Chennai, migration started towards suburban areas and townships started to proliferate in those places. Townships are developments with large open spaces and all basic living requirements including schools, offices, shopping complexes, theatres, hospitals and clubs.

A closer look at a typical Chennai township features reveals that:
Multistory residential complexes are developed with clusters of 5 to 10 dwelling units in each block.
Drawing on elements of modernism, these townships also contain open spaces and low-rise (single or two-storey) blocks.
No decorative elements are used and the emphasis is on functionality.
Open planning in these townships creates larger spaces as well as space into space circulation.
Inside dwelling units, other than private spaces, spaces are open and differentiated by levels, flooring and furniture styles.
Living areas lead to semi-private areas so that inhabitants do not feel they are in an enclosed structure.
Existing water bodies are upgraded to aesthetic elements by surrounding them with landscaped parks incorporating pedestrian paths.
Car parking areas are planned based on the area of dwelling units.
Green building concepts are incorporated in most buildings. Chennai has the distinction of housing the largest number of green buildings in the country.

In the recent past several malls with up to seven stories have also opened in Chennai with different styles of architecture (examples are gothic, formalism and modernism). These malls encapsulate retail stores, offices, multiplexes, restaurants, large lounges and. multilevel basement car parking.

Chennai has also an abundance of multistory IT Parks in postmodernism style, providing anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 square feet of carpet area. Their facades are typically enhanced with aluminum composite panels and glazing, and the interiors fitted out with modular workstations, optimal lighting, filtered power, generator backup and centralized HVAC services. At the time of writing this article, a large portion of this IT space is unoccupied, since many of these buildings were constructed in the pre-recession Indian IT boom, and many fell vacant as tenants downsized or closed down.

Because of the high price of urban land, owners of single-family independent homes are currently flocking to developers to forge joint-venture projects. Hopefully the developers will thoughtfully landscape these new projects to keep Chennai the pleasantly green city it has always been.