MOOC WHAW1.1x | 6.6.3 Industrialization, Masculinity, and Morality with Nick Juravich


– So professor, we’ve talked a bit already about the political implications
of the Civil War for women, about the economic implications, and now, I want to ask you some questions about the third category you mentioned the sort of moral implications of the changes wrought by
the Civil War for women and for men, and I wanted to start by asking about something
we discussed earlier, the sort of emergence of
masculinity in the 19th century. In our earlier sections, we talked about possessive individualism, the notion that a man, a citizen, owns his own labor or at least his labor if not also his own land. But the Civil War seems to
create a crisis of masculinity through urbanization,
through industrialization. What did this do for relations
between women and men? What does it do for the
idea of masculinity? – Well, let’s go back a little bit to talk about how the idea
of masculinity is transformed in the minds of men themselves. So when we talked about
possessive individualism and a man owning his own labor and therefore being able to sell it, that man was for the most part a person who was a craftsman, an artisan, somebody who made a product. His labor was invested in the product, and his masculinity, if you like, as well as his capacity
to support a family and indeed to be a considered a yeoman until the Jacksonian period to
have full citizenship, right, that was vested in his sense of what his labor could produce, not in terms of the income he made. Well along comes the Civil War, and of course, the rapid industrialization which transforms within a generation the vast majority of those,
of non-agricultural laborers from craftsmen to
basically unskilled labor, and then the man could no
longer measure his productivity by the object he produced, but had to measure it by
the income that he made. If he worked faster, if he was efficient, he was speedy, presumably,
he would make more money, so masculinity then
got measured by income, and so the good man then became the person who earned an income. Well, a guy gets laid off, you know, most of the jobs are seasonal
one way or the other, some involve speed up processes, which make it impossible for men to work when they get a little older
or get a little sicker, so masculinity that gets measured by money is a very variable kind of thing, so how do you then measure
who you are as a man? Well, one way to do that was
by controlling the household in which you lived. If you couldn’t do it in
the workplace anymore, then you did it at home. You were the man of the house. – And this is also the period in which the idea of
the family wage emerges, as you mentioned in the last section. – Well exactly right,
so those who could fight for a family wage, and of course, at the same time, the family wage emerges, a campaign for an eight hour day emerges, so that campaign doesn’t get
very far with ordinary people, neither does the family
wage for that matter in the 19th century, but still, the fight for those things are indications of how much manhood is
now gonna be vested in can I bring home enough money to support a wife and children, and can I support those
that wife and children in a way that enables me to participate and supervise and remain the
patriarch of family life? – And also in part to keep
your wife out of the workforce. – If a wife went into the workforce, you were immediately, your
manhood was immediately suspect. A good man, not only
needed a wife at home, but kept his wife from working, and a man who allowed or
let his wife make money in the workforce was, of
course, no man at all. – So what does this
mean for the wives then? If a man deserves a wife at
a family wage to be a man, what does a woman
deserve from her husband? – So, what does a woman deserve? A woman deserves a man
who can support her, a man who’s around and available, and a man whose wages she,
the woman, can control. If he’s drunk, she can’t control him, so the end of the 1860s sees the beginning of the Temperance Movement.

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